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The cost of the RCMP’s ‘culture of dysfunction’

Former Mounties open up about RCMP’s toxic work culture

When Pierre Lemaitre graduated in red serge in 1986, he was shipped to B.C., far from his Quebec upbringing. Location didn’t matter: he had his Stetson and his Strathcona boots — he was a Mountie. This was the realization of a lifelong dream.

With an aching smile, his widow Sheila Lemaitre recently testified about photos of little Lemaitre “standing at careful attention” next to Mounties in their iconic uniform. In 2013, after a long and difficult career, Lemaitre killed himself.

He was 55, a 27-year veteran of the force.

The inquest into his suicide, held late last year, was tasked with examining the circumstances that led to his death but ultimately didn’t have the mandate to delve into RCMP management — that, the Supreme Court is quite clear, is a federal power. And so, the work environment that Sheila — herself a former Mountie — many of Lemaitre’s colleagues and several experts believe contributed to the deterioration of his mental health went mostly unexplored.

The inquest lasted less than a week. Retired Mountie David Reichert, who knew Lemaitre and is in his own legal battle with the force, thought the recommendations coming from the inquest were superficial. He called it “the biggest waste of money you’ve ever seen.”

The total bill was about $32,000. That represents a tiny fraction of the funds that Global News estimates taxpayers have spent on fallout from mismanagement. More than $220 million has been spent in the last 20 years on everything from sexual harassment lawsuits to human rights complaints and federal inquiries into nepotism, workplace bullying and turf wars with other police agencies. This figure includes funds spent paying out lawsuits related to employee claims as well as external claims including use of force, malicious prosecution and failing to protect informants. It also includes the costs of inquiries into Mountie mismanagement, from the examination of the RCMP’s use of force during an Asia-Pacific Economic Co-operation (APEC) meeting in 1997 to two reports in 2017 on workplace harassment.

There’s no quick fix for transforming a paramilitary organization with over 30,000 members, including over 18,000 sworn police officers and 15 divisions with a mandate to cover everything from local policing to money laundering, terrorism, human smuggling and the prime minister’s security.

The resulting organizational culture that has persisted has been labelled a “culture of dysfunction” by the force’s own Civilian Review and Complaints Commission (CRCC) in a 2017 report on workplace harassment. In many respects, the report repeated themes of the inquiries that came before. The problems, it found, are pervasive: Mounties who won’t speak up for fear of repercussions, promotions driven by who you know rather than what you do and a presumption that because an officer occupies a senior rank, they automatically wield that power with skill and professionalism.

Global News has done extensive interviews with more than a dozen former and current Mounties as well as historians, psychologists and policing and organizational management experts, all of whom arrived at similar conclusions: so far, these efforts have been an expensive failure.

The RCMP has acknowledged some of its failings, including in a formal apology in 2016 to women in the force for careers “scarred” by harassment, and then, in 2018, to families of missing and murdered Indigenous women and girls for their investigative failings. By announcing plans last week to bring in a civilian board to oversee management of the RCMP, the federal government has implicitly acknowledged the failure to address these issues within the organization.

On paper, these new reforms are sweeping and indicate that the government is willing to address Mountie problems, said Robert Gordon, a criminologist at Simon Fraser University. The reality, however, remains to be seen.

“I don’t think the mandate, at this point, is to undertake the significant restructuring and reform of the RCMP that is required,” he said. “It’ll be settling problems that have arisen inside the house as opposed to problems that have arisen as a result of the structure of the house.”

‘I felt helpless’: Trauma on the job

In December 1991, Pierre Lemaitre was called to a murder in Bella Coola, a small community on B.C.’s central coast, home of the Nuxalk Nation. A young woman had been sexually assaulted and beaten to death. Her face was swollen beyond recognition, and nobody had reported anyone missing.

“I felt helpless,” Lemaitre wrote in the years before his death in a letter to Veterans Affairs as part of a pension application.

lemaitre quote

“We all carry some flashbacks or heavy memories or worries, when we look at our loved ones, that similar things could happen, but it’s part of the job,” Sheila explained at the inquest.

And yet, a 2017 report from the auditor general found that despite being one of the first federal organizations to introduce a mental health strategy, the RCMP was not meeting the needs of its members. That report served as a reminder of how that failure reverberates: “Ultimately, members’ poor mental health affects the RCMP’s capacity to serve and protect Canadians.”

The RCMP did not directly respond to questions about its mental health strategy but instead shared information outlining the services currently available to its members.

Lemaitre understood that by its nature, the job meant trauma and flashbacks, worry and fear. But, Sheila testified: “He still beamed when he put on that red serge.”

Pepper-spraying protesters

In 1997, Pierre Lemaitre was one of several Mounties tasked with communications during the November APEC meeting. It resulted in an almost $10-million inquiry shadowed by allegations of political interference.

In late November, when world leaders gathered to talk about trade, police arrested protesters who set up a tent city on the University of British Columbia campus ahead of one of the scheduled meetings and tore down signs hung on coat racks that read “free speech,” “democracy” and “human rights.” Snipers watched from the rooftops.

The turning point, on the final day, was the actions of RCM

Staff Sgt. Hugh Stewart and his squad. Responsible for clearing some 50 or 60 people from the roadways, Stewart got out of his van with a can of pepper spray the size of a fire extinguisher. He told the protesters to leave. They didn’t.

While Stewart wasn’t the only Mountie to shoot pepper spray — protesters writhed on the streets, trying to wipe the chemical from their eyes — he was the one people would remember. A CBC camera operator caught the spray on his camera. That clip would be replayed over and over on the news.

The reaction was angry and instantaneous. Shirley Heafey, chair of the RCMP’s public complaints commission at the time, told reporter Jesse Ferreras in 2007 that she called for an inquiry after the force stymied her attempts to investigate. There were claims the prime minister himself ordered the crackdown. The inquiry didn’t satisfy many of those outraged.

Pepper-spraying protesters

In 2001, when the inquiry released its interim report, Stewart — later promoted to sergeant major — was tasked with training officers at the Summit of the Americas in Quebec City. Many reports have described th

RCMP promotion system, as recently as 2017, as having “little or no credibility.” Allegations or findings of fault seemed to have no consistent bearing on a person’s career trajectory, but speaking up — as Lemaitre would come to find out — did. The RCMP did not respond to questions about its promotion or discipline systems. Global News could not reach Stewart, however his wife told reporter Jesse Ferreras in 2007 that he had “absolutely no interest” in talking about APEC.

That the APEC inquiry and inquiries since don’t seem to focus on the systemic problems is unsurprising, said Jaggi Singh, one of the protesters arrested during APEC. In his opinion, “the parameters of those commissions are well within not questioning the fundamental right of the RCMP to do what they do.”

“The purpose of it is to absolve large parts of policing and maybe critique a few bad apples,” Singh added.

While the APEC commission criticized the “manner” in which protesters were pepper-sprayed, saying it “likely did not conform with recommended procedure,” it ultimately ruled the action appropriate.

“I do not find any inappropriate conduct in the manner in which the spray was dispersed,” read the commission’s final report.

Sexual harassment — inside and outside the force

Catherine Galliford met Pierre Lemaitre for the first time on the APEC summit media team. He was kind, genuine and trustworthy, Galliford said.

Galliford, who is now 52, worked out of the force’s Richmond detachment, handling high-profile cases like the Air India investigation. In 1985, 329 people were killed when a bomb exploded aboard their flight, despite advance warning that a terrorist attack was likely. Only one person was ever convicted.

Sexual harassment — inside and outside the force

Galliford also worked on the missing women investigation that would eventually lead to serial killer Robert Pickton’s arrest — a mishandled investigation that an inquiry, concluding in 2012, found “completely overlooked the Aboriginal dimensions of the missing women crisis throughout the investigations.” Relatedly, a proposed class-action into the RCMP’s investigations into missing and murdered Indigenous women was filed against the force and the federal government last year, seeking $600 million. At the time, a spokesperson for Public Safety Minister Ralph Goodale refused to comment on a case before the courts.

More than a colleague and friend, Lemaitre became a person that helped Galliford cope with her sexual harassment allegations. “What I needed Pierre for was someone to bear witness to what was happening to me,” she said.

Galliford, who joined the RCMP in 1991, went public with her allegations in 2011 and settled a lawsuit with the force in 2016, said she accompanied a supervisor on trips across Canada to visit with the families of the Air India victims in the late 1990s. There was no news to tell them, she said, but she alleges her supervisor used these trips as a chance to try to have sex with her.

A different supervisor had shown her his genitals and asked if she thought a mole on his penis was “cute,” she said. Galliford says these were just two in a string of incidents she dealt with in her two decades on the force. When Galliford went public, the force responded by saying sexual harassment was not to be tolerated and pledged to stamp it out. In its statement of defence in response to her suit, the federal government, on behalf of the RCMP, denied all the allegations. However, they settled the matter in 2016. The sheer number of women coming forward with similar stories culminated in a class action the force settled for $100 million in 2016. Investigators are slowly weighing their claims.

While Galliford found an ally in Lemaitre, others outside the organization also turned to him when they needed help. During the Kelowna wildfires in August 2003, a journalist approached Lemaitre and one of his female colleagues with allegations of sexual harassment. He later wrote about this in his application to Veterans Affairs.

The reporter told Lemaitre that his direct supervisor had made “several inappropriate sexual comments” during an interview. While she tried to move the conversation forward, the Mountie kept at her, according to Lemaitre’s account of the reporter’s allegations.

“He replied that he was surprised that she had the lead on the story while she was standing vertically because she got most of her leads while lying horizontally, suggesting she obtained information from sources while engaged in sexual activity,” Lemaitre summarized. “She was furious and left.”

Lemaitre reported the alleged incident, even though it involved his boss.

lemaitre quote

“Our group was small, and I felt disloyal having to do this,” he wrote.

He was called into his boss’ office and berated, according to his letter and the testimony of his wife and former colleagues. Lemaitre wrote that he was advised that he “did not have the support of senior management anymore.” Vaughan said the force can’t confirm this, as it handled the matter internally and is thus “bound by the Privacy Act.”

The force’s unofficial motto: Never ‘tarnish the buffalo’

Lemaitre was transferred to a less plum night shift in Chilliwack after reporting his superior, his wife said.

The allegations don’t surprise Leo Knight, who was a Mountie for four years in the 1970s, later a Vancouver police officer and a popular blogger on policing issues. The Mountie motto is “Maintiens le droit,” often translated as “uphold the right.” The problem, Knight said, is there’s also an unwritten one: “Never do anything to tarnish the buffalo.”

“If I do the right thing and it brings disrepute to the organization itself, then suddenly I have to look and do something else, which may not be right but it’s the right thing not to tarnish the buffalo,” Knight said.

In 2007, Carleton University management professor Linda Duxbury sent questionnaires to thousands of Mounties and interviewed hundreds more in order to understand the RCMP workplace. She honed in on the promotion system as a problem. Members saw promotions as something you received if you had friends in high places rather than skill on the job. It was a process, Duxbury noted, that worsened their harassment experiences.

The RCMP commissioned her independent report on workplace issues, and 12 years on, she’s yet to see any action on recommendations like overhauling its promotion system and changing how the force handles discipline issues. The RCMP did not respond to questions concerning changes to its promotion system. However, in response to the 2017 CRCC report, which raised issues like promotion and discipline again, then-RCMP Commissioner Bob Paulson released a statement, saying: “It should be noted that many of the reports’ judgments rely on the historical context of RCMP transformation efforts that are not, in my view, reflective of current RCMP environment, policies or processes.”

The Mounties’ top-down system is such that recruits with only a high school education can be shipped to Regina for training and then out to one coast then another, per the CRCC report, working their way up with minimal leadership training. Cultural change, Duxbury said, would require a change in how the force rewards members, how it promotes them and how it disciplines them. If that change — recommended in multiple reports as recently as 2017 — had happened, she said, you would see members being “let go for doing completely inappropriate behaviour.”

Lawrence Chung, who shared his story publicly with Global News for the first time, also says he experienced repercussions when trying to report misconduct. In 2007, he reluctantly took a transfer from his criminal investigation unit. A year earlier, Chung had been the RCMP officer handling witness management in the aftermath of the kidnapping of drug kingpin Peter Li.

Chung, now 50, said one of his coworkers told him jokingly that he’d hopped into a hot tub with one of the female witnesses.

The man was a friend and Chung chose not to report him. He felt it was enough to remove that friend from the case.

But three months later, the witness’ godmother came in for an interview. After the official interview, she told him the night before she and her goddaughter had been having drinks with two of his colleagues handling the case.

Chung, who thought the incident was a one-off involving one colleague’s poor judgment, realized the issue was more problematic than he’d originally thought: bad optics creating the possible legal perception of potential witness tampering.

“I couldn’t believe this was happening in this major kidnapping case,” Chung said.

In response to detailed questions concerning Chung’s allegations, RCMP spokesperson Cpl. Caroline Duval said: “We cannot comment on any police operations or police techniques.”

Making the report wrecked the trust on his team, Chung said, even though “we are trained that we are supposed to raise concerns when we see something that’s not right.”


Chung, who wanted to get to 25 years of service, only made it to 21. One incident, he learned, has a way of following you around. He started having problems with a new team in 2015. They were always showing up late, he said, or calling in sick or not developing informants, a crucial part of intelligence-led policing.

He documented this in emails to his boss that he shared with Global News. The response, he said, was swearing, dismissal, hints that he’d be transferred and a snide reference to his “history of having problems.”

When Chung filed a harassment claim, the chief superintendent attempted informal resolution, telling him it sounded a little bit like “sour grapes.” This December 2016 conversation — the audio of which Chung provided to Global News — highlights a recurring concern raised in the 2017 CRCC report: “In many cases, supervisors are exercising their managerial authority in an unreasonable manner and for the purpose of intimidation.”

Chung decided to take a transfer. In January 2017, he realized he couldn’t muster the energy to fight anymore. He quit. In the two years since, he’s watched the headlines emerge about allegations of RCMP case mismanagement, some handled by his former supervisor, who Global News has confirmed has since been promoted. Chung’s former supervisor said via email the allegations against him were “unfounded” and that he follows the “processes that must be adhered to” when participating in an investigation.

It took months after Chung left the RCMP before he was able to see the force’s official decision on his harassment complaint. Per emails shared with Global News, they forgot to include his email address when the decision was initially released. They did not find in his favour.

‘Are you the Lemaitre?’

Four years after he was booted to Chilliwack, sometime around 2007, Pierre Lemaitre was promoted back into media relations at the RCMP’s B.C. headquarters in Surrey. On Oct. 14, 2007, 40-year old Polish immigrant Robert Dziekanski was Tasered at the Vancouver airport after spending hours wandering the airport in confusion. He died within minutes.

Lemaitre was called into work that morning. On camera, it was Lemaitre’s job to tell the public what had happened. He reported that there were three Mounties at the scene, too many people around to use pepper spray and that Dziekanski had been Tasered twice — information given to him by the officer in charge of the investigation.

Then, a video showing the incident revealed this wasn’t an accurate account. There were four Mounties involved, very few bystanders and five Taser shocks.

Lemaitre was devastated, Sheila testified.

“Accusations flew that I had lied and given out false information,” Lemaitre wrote in his Veterans Affairs letter. “Unfortunately, the risk for any spokesperson is that you are only as good as the information you are given.”


It took an incredible toll, Sheila said. Lemaitre was shuffled out to the Langley traffic division in early 2008.

At work, she said people whispered about him in the cafeteria. In public, people recognized him. They’d be in the grocery store together, and the clerk would look at his credit card, then at him and ask: “Are you the Lemaitre?”

There was a sense of vindication after he testified at the Braidwood inquiry in 2009, and it became clear he had wanted to tell the truth but was forbidden to, Sheila testified, although that information didn’t seem to filter down to the public.


The inquiry investigated the use of Tasers as well as the circumstances of Dziekanski’s death, including the way passengers arriving from abroad are dealt with at the airport. In addition to the $5.3-million inquiry, the B.C. government spent an additional $953,761 on a special prosecutor to handle the cases of the four Mounties on the scene of Dziekanski’s death. Every time there was an update about their prosecution, it was Lemaitre’s face that would flash on TV. (Three of the four Mounties have filed lawsuits against the force.)

In his Veterans Affairs application, Lemaitre wrote about how hard it was becoming to get through each day: “Every time my phone rings at work or at home, my heart races and I get anxiety attacks. I get furious and angry in two seconds.”

On July 29, 2013, Lemaitre hanged himself.

Sheila filed a lawsuit alleging the RCMP used him as a scapegoat in the Dziekanski affair, disregarding the consequences for his mental health. In her statement of claim, she alleged a senior Mountie visited her a few days after Lemaitre died and told her that “what was done to Pierre was done for the good of the force.”

The RCMP settled Sheila’s lawsuit in 2018 with a non-disclosure agreement. While Dziekanski’s Tasering enraged Canadians, it was one incident in a long, especially poor year for the Mounties. The fallout from the O’Connor Commission into the rendition of Maher Arar — a Canadian citizen shipped by the U.S. to Syria whose nearly year-long torture was “very likely” the result of unfair, misleading and inaccurate information supplied by the RCMP — continued to reverberate.

Testimony in 2007 at the Air India inquiry, which was probing the failures of the two-decades-old investigation into the worst terrorist attack in Canadian history, revealed Mountie mismanagement, work conflict and an investigation hampered by RCMP and CSIS turf wars.

Also in 2007, David Brown, the independent investigator charged with investigating the RCMP’s handling of its pension fund scandal — marred by nepotism, contract problems and a misuse of funds made worse by senior management attempts to stymie investigations — questioned the structure of the force.

“A sophisticated business organization of this size cannot provide appropriate transparency and accountability within a command and control structure,” Brown wrote. He recommended civilian oversight, a recommendation left dormant until now.

Steve Hewitt, a senior history lecturer at the University of Birmingham and author of three books about the RCMP’s history, is mixed on reviving the idea.

Reforming the force

There was a big hurrah last year when Prime Minister Justin Trudeau announced Brenda Lucki would be the force’s first permanent female commissioner. But, Hewitt said: “The structures, the ethos, the history, the myth, all of that remains intact.”

Knight, the former Mountie, likes to describe the RCMP as “14[6] years of tradition unhampered by progress.” Tease that apart, he said, and you’re looking at a force that’s changing membership and equipment but not keeping up with the world.

When it comes to the Mounties’ organizational culture, Duxbury, the Carleton University management professor, said the RCMP hasn’t even begun addressing cultural problems that manifest in fear and harassment among the rank and file and a poor promotion system that looks favourably on self-promotion and less so on HR skills.

A common perception among Mounties, per the RCMP CRCC’s review of workplace harassment in 2017, is “the promotion process exacerbates the problem of workplace harassment by rewarding self-promotion rather than leadership aptitude, performance, skills and knowledge.”

Civilian oversight won’t come close to touching the problem, Duxbury said, because of what the force has built and entrenched over more than 140 years.

“It’s a very unique culture,” Duxbury said. “It’s a very strong culture.”

When he announced civilian oversight, Goodale said, “Changes in governance and culture are not a singular event… but rather a process over time that demands diligent, persistent effort.”

Every commission, every inquiry, every investigation, every report and every lawsuit is a nail in the Mountie coffin, said Gordon, the criminologist from Simon Fraser University.

And yet, to borrow his metaphor, hammering in another nail doesn’t seem to change much.

“Another nail, not the nail,” Gordon clarified. “It’s a big coffin because it’s a huge organization that has the capacity to adjust to the blows from a hammer.”

—With files from Jesse Ferreras and the Canadian Press

The timeline in this story contains major RCMP costs. Not included in the timeline, but included in the Global News estimate, are payouts for false arrest, malicious prosecution, breach of responsibility, defamation of character, excess force, assault, negligence, breach of charter rights and awards for wrongful detention, among other payouts. These figures are captured in annual Public Accounts of Canada reports.

Original article can be found here – https://globalnews.ca/news/4864037/rcmp-culture-of-dysfunction/

Human Rights Law in Canada

Human Rights Law in Canada

Canada is a country that provides its citizens with a wide range of rights and freedoms.  In 1977, the Parliament of Canada passed the Canadian Human Rights Act that intends to define rights and freedoms that apply equally to all its citizens regardless of their personal identities.  In other words, no matter your sex, sexual orientation, gender (including gender identity and gender expression), race, marital status, creed, age, ethnicity, ability, and political or religious belief, you should be afforded equal opportunity under the law.

If ever you have felt discrimination, it is the Canadian Human Rights Act that would outline which protections you are afforded.  That being said, this Act is under federal jurisdiction, and there are also provincial and territorial laws that apply to human rights in Canada.  While the Canadian Human Rights Act protects individuals for federally regulated activities, each of the provinces and territories would have their own set of anti-discrimination laws that protect individuals at that level.  For example, with respect to employment protections, the Canadian Human Rights Act protects those Canadians that are employed by the federal government, First Nations governments, and private companies that are federally regulated (i.e. banks, trucking companies, broadcasters, and telecommunications companies).

Additionally, the Canadian Human Rights Act not only protects against discrimination, but harassment as well.  Whereas discrimination may be defined as unjust or prejudicial treatment of an individual based on factors such as race, religion, sex, or gender, harassment constitutes a form of discrimination that includes any physical or verbal behaviour that you deem offensive or humiliating.  Harassment is typically considered behaviour that persists over a period of time, particularly if you have identified the behaviour as harassing and attempted to communicate to the perpetrator how their behaviour negatively affects you.

There are a wide range of behaviours that are considered harassment according to the Canadian Human Rights Act.  Unwelcome comments or jokes about aspects of your identity, threats or intimidation related to your identity, or unwelcome physical content such as touching or pinching are all examples of behaviour that may be defined as harassment.

Ultimately, the Canadian Human Rights Act sets out to provide all Canadians with a safe space in which they can be employed, conduct business, and engage in society without the risk of harassment or discrimination.  Should you feel that you have been treated unjustly because of aspects of your identity that include but are not limited to your sex, sexual orientation, gender (including gender identity and gender expression), race, marital status, creed, age, ethnicity, ability, and political or religious belief, you should speak with a lawyer about your rights as a Canadian.  None of us should feel oppressed or ostracized as citizens of this country.

What are the Benefits of Employment Insurance?

Benefits of Employment Insurance

In Canada, employment insurance (EI) is operated by the government and provides temporary income assistance for eligible employees who cannot work.  There are different types of benefits offered through EI in Canada including regular benefits and special benefits.  Of course, as with any kind of insurance, there are specific eligibility requirements.   Let’s take a moment to review the eligibility criteria as well as the types of benefits of employment insurance that are available to workers in Canada.

Ultimately, there are several eligibility requirements for EI in Canada.  First, you must be employed in insurable employment – which means you and/or your employer have been contributing to EI premiums.  Next, you can only collect EI regular benefits if you have lost a job through no fault of your own.  Once you have been off work and not receiving pay for at least seven consecutive days, you can apply for EI.  However, in order to qualify, you must have worked between 420 and 700 insurable hours in the 52-week period before your claim starts.  Finally, you must be ready, willing and capable of working while you’re collecting benefits, and you must also be actively seeking work to qualify.  Nevertheless, there are some special exceptions for eligibility so if you are not certain of your eligibility status, you should apply for benefits regardless.

So then, speaking of benefits, what are the benefits of employment insurance in Canada?  Essentially, EI represents temporary income assistance for individuals who have lost their job through no fault of their own.  The exact amount of income assistance depends on your earnings.  The basic EI rate is about 55% of your average weekly income with a maximum amount of $547/week.  Also depending on the length of your employment, you may be eligible to receive EI benefits for a period of 14 weeks to a maximum of 45 weeks.  The length of time you can collect benefits is also determined by the unemployment rate in your area.  Additionally, a family supplement is available to individuals with children and a spouse (who receives the Canada Child Benefit) if their net family income is below $25,921 per year.  This supplement can bump your EI benefits up to as much as 80% of your average weekly income, but this figure also depends on your net family income.

Finally, EI benefits are also available to certain individuals who are off work because of sickness.  You may qualify for temporary income assistance through EI if you cannot work because of sickness, injury, or quarantine.  Typically, the maximum length of eligibility for sickness benefits is 15 weeks.  Also, you might be surprised to learn that maternity and paternity benefits through the government are also part of your EI benefits.

The Difference between a Union and Non-Union Workplace

The Difference between a Union and Non-Union WorkplaceIf you’ve never worked in a union environment, you may not know the difference between a union and a non-union workplace.  Some of the nuances that distinguish union from non-union workplaces are quite complex, the reality of the difference comes down to who defines the work culture.  In a non-union work environment, the employer holds the majority of power.  This means the employer determines work expectations, sets wages, determines work schedules, and maintains independence over discipline, promotions, and other aspects of work culture.  On the other hand, in a union environment, employees have more control.  Through their union, employees can negotiate workplace contracts that include details about work expectations, wages, schedules, discipline, promotions, etc.  But, what else do you need to know about union and non-union environments?

Let’s start by discussing some of the pros and cons of working in a union environment.  Wages, benefits, security, and support are some of the reasons employees prefer a union environment.  Some estimates indicate union workers earn on average $200 more per week than non-union employees.  Additionally, union workers tend to receive medical benefits more often than non-union counterparts.  More than 90% of union workers are entitled to medical benefits compared to less than 70% of non-union workers.  Moreover, union employees’ spouses or domestic partners are more often included in this benefit coverage compared to non-union employees.

Another benefit of working in a union environment is job security.  In a union environment, the only way an employee can be dismissed is for just cause – this means they must exhibit serious misconduct (e.g. theft from the employer) to be fired.  Additionally, the support union employees receive from their peers allows for collective action if a worker feels they are being treated unfairly.  Sometimes, tare even rules in union workplaces to protect more senior staff from being overlooked for a promotion or a transfer to a new position.

Of course, there are some drawbacks to working in a union environment.  For example, all union members are expected to pay union dues which can cost up to a few hundred dollars per year.  There is also the fact that as a union member, you are part of a collective and you lose some of your autonomy.  Whether you agree with union decisions, you are bound to the employment contract they negotiate.  And, perhaps most unfortunate, many union workers report supervisors tend to be less collaborative.  This resulted in unionized workers feeling less trust, support, and partnership with management.

So, while outlining the basic differences between union and non-union workplaces is relatively straightforward, it is clear there are some underlying differences that must be carefully considered if you are entering a union or non-union workplace.  Plus, every union is different, so do your research and choose a workplace that fits for you and your values.

What is an Employment Resignation?

What is an Employment Resignation?

What is employment resignation?  It’s really quite simple.  Resignation is the process by which you officially end or terminate employment.  There are many ways to submit an employment resignation; depending on the nature of your employment contract or the laws in your province, you may resign verbally or in writing.  That being said, most employers will request written notification of your intent to resign – but why?

Human resources departments can be fastidious in their expectation to receive your employment resignation in writing.  Usually added to your personnel file, written notice of resignation provides your company a record of the date your employment ended.  This record can be used to protect the company in case any legal challenges come up, but it is also important with respect to processing the end of your employment for other legal reasons.  For example, in British Columbia, you are not eligible for employment insurance if you choose to resign.  Written notice of employment resignation is therefore used by your employer to file the necessary paperwork with government bodies.  Similarly, written notice of employment resignation is evidence that your employer did not terminate your employment – either with or without cause.

Many people see employment resignation as a difficult process, but it does not need to be viewed negatively.  Life circumstances change, sometimes there is a poor fit between you and your company, or you may be pursuing new challenges or opportunities.  Whatever your reasons for terminating your employment, the way you resign says a lot about you professionally.  Consider the company you work for and the position you hold when deciding to resign.  In many provinces, you are not legally required to provide any notice of termination – but how will this affect the company you work for and your ability to get a reference?  Alternatively, you may have signed an employment contract that very clearly outlines your responsibilities when you resign your employment.  Take care to provide your company with adequate and respectful notice.

Some other tips for employment resignation is to be brief.  Your written notice of employment resignation should include the current date, the final date of your employment, your name, and signature.  You are not required to provide a reason for your resignation, but many find it easiest to include something about “seeking new opportunities” to make the resignation more palatable to your employer.  At a minimum, it is usually recommended to provide 2 weeks’ notice of resignation.  Again, you’ll want to carefully consider your position, the impact of your resignation, and your employment contract in formatting your resignation letter.

Remember, a succinct and respectful resignation letter that provides adequate notice to your employer is the ideal way to terminate your employment.  You never know when you may cross paths with your employer or their human resources personnel in the future.

What to Do if You are Laid Off


Life can be stressful sometimes, and one of the most stressful events anyone can experience is the loss of a job.  When people get laid off they can be overwhelmed by financial worries, anxiety about job searches and interviews, or even how to break the news to their loved ones.  Still, optimism can be a great way to stay motivated – if you have been laid off, show compassion for yourself and be proactive in your search for new employment.  Remember, getting laid off likely has nothing to do with your work performance or skill set, and ultimately the experience may offer new opportunities you’d never before considered.  So, what should you do if you are laid off?

Get Organized

Legally, your employer is required to provide written notice of a layoff or financial compensation in lieu of notice.  Either way, you should have some time to get yourself organized for what comes next.  Depending on your length of service, the notice period will vary so be sure to know your rights.  Check with your HR department or even search online to ensure you are being treated fairly under the law in your region.  You’ll want to consider a number of factors:

  • When is your last pay?
  • What are your benefit entitlements?
  • Are you eligible for severance according to labour laws or your employment contract?
  • Who can you contact for references?

Available Support

Once you have a clear picture of your layoff, consider what kind of support is available to you.  Sometimes government services such as employment insurance or supported job searches can help you transition from one job to the next.  It’s well worth your while to determine what support is available to you as soon as possible.  You’re already in the groove of working regular hours, so you can focus your time and attention on what’s coming next.  As already stated, taking the proactive approach will ease your transition to new employment.

Your Personal and Professional Supports

Remember, you are not alone.  No matter how stressed out losing your job can be, you have friends, family, and professional relationships that can help you get back on your feet.  If you need to take some time for yourself, do it – getting laid off is a difficult experience, and giving yourself a few days to adjust is fair.  At the same time, relying on your network of friends and family will allow you to maintain perspective while considering what opportunities are available.  Don’t forget to reach out to your professional network to see what’s out there.  Your social media connections are another resource that can help you find appropriate work.

Make a Plan

Finally, when your mind has settled and you know the terms of your lay off, start to make a plan.  Keep structure in your day, manage your self-care, and put yourself to work finding suitable, challenging, and satisfying work.

What Is the Canadian Human Rights Act?

Human Rights Act Canada

Passed in 1977 by the Parliament of Canada, the Canadian Human Rights Act is a piece of legislation that outlines legal protections for all citizens of Canada.  The goal of the act is to protect Canadians from discrimination based on membership to unique or marginalized groups.  The Canadian Human Rights Act protects individuals from discrimination based on sex, gender identity, sexual orientation, ethnicity, marital status, age, disability, or religious or political affiliations.  The Act applies to activities with federal oversight across Canada, though most provinces and territories feature their own human rights’ code to protect against discrimination.

Discrimination is often defined as any action or behaviour that results in unjust treatment of a person or group based on their membership in a particular group.  The Canadian Human Rights Act essentially makes discrimination illegal in Canada, so anybody who is victim of discrimination according to the Act is eligible for legal protection.  Should you feel you have been subject to discrimination, you can make a complaint with the Canadian Human Rights Commission.

Currently, the Act makes it illegal to discriminate on the grounds of race, national or ethnic origin, colour, religion, age, sex, sexual orientation, marital status, family status, disability, or a conviction for which you have been pardoned.  So, for example, you cannot be refused a loan based on your ethnic origin and you can’t be fired because your sexual orientation is revealed.

According to the Canadian Human Rights Act, discriminatory practices include the following:

  • Denying goods or services,
  • Refusing employment,
  • Pay inequity,
  • Hate speech communicated by phone or internet, or
  • Retaliation against a person who has filed a human rights complaint.

Tasked with investigating claims of discrimination, the Canadian Human Rights Commission has a vision of promoting an equal and just country for all Canadians.  The right to live life free from discrimination is a basic human right in Canada, and by law the Canadian Human Rights Commission is required to investigate every discrimination complaint received.

It is also important to know that in Canada, the Constitution shares jurisdiction for discriminatory acts at federal and provincial or territorial levels.  Some agencies and organizations (such as airlines and financial institutions) are legislated federally, whereas businesses tend to be regulated regionally by the provincial or territorial governments.

The Canadian Human Rights Act can be difficult to navigate for anybody with out expert legal knowledge.  If you feel you have experienced discrimination, but are protected under the Act, you should contact a legal representative.  You may be eligible for compensation, but only if legal discrimination is established.  Obviously, the experience of discrimination can be highly unsettling, but if you decide to pursue a complaint remember that you are protected under the law.

Dismissal Without Cause in BC

Dismissal Without Cause in BC

As an employee in British Columbia (BC), it is important to know your rights.  While there are very few protections from dismissal without cause in BC, there are still several entitlements that ensure employers are at least somewhat considerate in their decisions to terminate employment.  Unless you have a specific employment contract, the BC Employment Standards Act outlines all the conditions of employment in this province, and that includes the rules and regulations associated with dismissal.

First, let’s talk about the bad news.  Under the BC Employment Standards Act, any employer may terminate employment at any time for any reason.  This means there is no real case for dismissal without cause in BC unless you have an employment contract that outlines a broader scope of rights than the BC Employment Standards Act.

That being said, the vast majority of employees are entitled to some kind of compensation when their employment is terminated.  In order to be eligible for compensation in BC, an employee must have completed three consecutive months of employment.  Moreover, compensation is only provided in lieu of advance written notice of termination from the employer.

So then, if you’ve been employed for three or more months with the same company and you’re terminated without written notice, your employer must provide financial compensation.  All employees are entitled to one week’s pay after three consecutive months of employment, two weeks’ pay after 12 consecutive months of employment, and three weeks’ pay plus one week for each additional year after three consecutive years of employment.  Compensation in BC is maxed out at 8 weeks’ compensation.

However, it is important that employees in the province know that they are not entitled to compensation if employers provide advance written notice of termination providing this notice is equal to the number of weeks’ compensation to which the employee is entitled.  For example, if you have been employed with a company for three consecutive years, they must provide written notice 3 weeks in advance of the termination date.

You may also not be eligible for compensation under the following conditions:

  • Dismissal with just cause,
  • Termination of an on-call or temporary assignment,
  • The end of contracted employment,
  • The end of a defined term of employment,
  • Teachers employed by a board of school trustees.

Still, there are other factors covered by common law that may influence the amount of compensation or written notice to which an employee is entitled.  For example, length of service, employee age, position held, and even availability of similar employment may impact compensation.  If you feel you’ve been dismissed without just cause and you’re unsure of your rights, contact an employment lawyer to ensure you are compensated appropriately.

How Much Will it Cost to Hire a Labour Lawyer?



Legal fees can be shocking, to say the least.  One of the biggest complaints clients of lawyers have is that they didn’t know what to expect when it comes to their lawyer’s fees.  Even though fees are set out in advance of establishing a lawyer-client relationship, clients are often surprised at how much time a lawyer spends on their case and as such can be surprised at the ultimate cost of services.  Another factor that clients don’t always realize is that lawyer fees are essentially unregulated – lawyers can charge whatever rate they like and there are different fee arrangements too.  With that in mind, knowing how much it will cost to hire a labour lawyer can be difficult to define, but knowing more about these fee arrangements will help you understand how much to expect a labour lawyer to cost.

Hourly Rates

Hourly rates are conventional fee arrangements for labour lawyers.  With hourly rates, lawyers are paid for the time they spend on your case which means there isn’t always a lot of incentive for them to settle cases efficiently.  Hourly rates are a great choice for concrete tasks including contract review, but not great if you anticipate a lawsuit.  Court costs themselves are quite expensive, and if you have to pay your lawyer’s hourly rate as well, you could be in for a hefty bill.  Also, if you seek employment law services, there’s a good chance your employer knows your funds are limited and they’ll be motivated to drag the case out as long as possible so that you simply cannot afford your lawyer’s time.

Time versus Result

Finally, some lawyers will also charge clients based on the greater amount of hourly or contingency agreements.  These are the least beneficial for clients because a lawyer is going to get paid a percentage of your settlement/court award or hourly rate – whichever is greater.

Ultimately, as the client, it is important for you to consider the different types of fee agreements before hiring a labour lawyer and negotiate an agreement that works best for you.


We are Pleased to Announce We Have Won Several Awards in 2017

awards 2017

The Worldwide Financial Advisor Awards Magazine is an internationally acknowledged online magazine based in the United Kingdom.  With readership exceeding 74,000 lawyers, advisers, consultants, and executives per issue representing 92,500 online subscriptions and subscribers in 159 countries, Worldwide Financial Advisor Awards Magazine is dedicated to recognizing the best professional and financial institutions around the world.

2017-AI-awardWith great success, the magazine published a Financial Monthly Global Awards 2016– Labour & Employment Lawyer of the Year issue wherein they recognized us for global leadership and expertise among the highest quality lawyers around the world.  Additionally, The Lawyers Worldwide Awards Magazine  presented us with the Lawyers Worldwide Awards Super Lawyers 2017 celebrating prolific law firms that stand for excellence and tenacity, thereby positioning themselves as the preeminent firms in their areas of specialization.


Given the prestige of these awards, we are proud to announce that we have won several awards in the Lawyers Worldwide Super Lawyers 2017 campaign.  Through a process that involves evaluation by a panel of highly respected judges, as well as feedback from the readership of Lawyers Worldwide Awards Magazine, we were nominated in the category representing Labour and Employment Law Firms.  Along with our many esteemed competitors, our firm was assessed on factors such as client retention, speed of response, and ability to manage complex cases while maintaining the utmost in client satisfaction and comfort.  Indeed, these awards are presented to firms that navigate all manner of multifaceted cases while ensuring clients are treated with unparalleled respect and provided uncompromised support.

seal - awards 2017As such, we are now rated one of the Top 3 Employment Lawyers in Coquitlam, BC.  Our efforts to consistently provide exceptional law services to our clients throughout Coquitlam and the Lower Mainland have been validated by not only our clients, but now by our international community. This is no small feat.  Utilizing a 50-point inspection process, our firm excelled across categories including reputation, history, complaints, ratings, satisfaction, trust, and cost.

Yet, as an even greater tribute our firm was also recognized by Global 100 as Employment and Labour Lawyer of the Year – Canada 2017.  This is certainly a humbling prize, and one that demands we recognize our amazing community of clients, as well as our international colleagues.  As an Employment Law Firm, we know the stress and uncertainty that many of our client’s face, and while our main goal is to provide quality services and the best possible support in their times of need, we feel very privileged to receive this award.  We take it as a representation of our dedication to the individualized needs of each of our clients and our determination to serve them each with excellence and respect.

Finally, we are incredibly honoured to be acknowledged by the British Columbia Branch of the Canadian Bar Association with their Innovative Workplace Award.  Recognizing creative leadership and innovation in the workplace, we are pleased to represent the forefront of virtual law practice by receiving this award.  As one of the first virtual law firms awarded, the Canadian Bar Association – BC Branch applauds our use of user-friendly, reliable technology in delivering efficient, affordable, quality legal services to a wide range of clients in British Columbia.  Through the use of pioneering technology, we have been selected for providing exceptional services to clients even in remote locations where they normally would not benefit from access to labour or human rights legal services.  Combining creative solutions and leadership to promote innovation in the practice of law are the foundations that allowed us to win the Innovative Workplace Award – a prestigious honour that we very graciously accept.